Cigarette smoking: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important and established risk factors for visually consequential AMD. The current evidence is broadly consistent across a range of study designs. Indeed, the risk of developing visually consequential AMD is two to three times greater among current smokers when compared with people who never smoked cigarettes.
Diet: Current research has shown that diet is an important risk factor for visually consequential AMD. In particular, a diet containing the macular carotenoids is believed to be important in preventing the onset of visually consequential AMD. “Higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin was independently associated with decreased likelihood of having neovascular AMD, geographic atrophy, and large or extensive intermediate drusen”).
Antioxidant supplements: Antioxidant supplements have been shown to be beneficial in reducing the progression of non-visually consequential AMD to visually consequential AMD (i.e. preventing AMD that has not yet affected vision from developing into AMD that does affect vision. There is a growing body of evidence that antioxidant supplements containing the macular carotenoids may be beneficial in terms of preventing or delaying the onset or progression of AMD.
Watch your weight :
Obesity: Obesity is a putative/suggested risk factor for visually consequential AMD. In fact, there appears to be a growing body of evidence in support of the view that obesity is an important determinant for the development of visually consequential AMD.
Watch your cholesterol and your blood pressure:
Cholesterol: High cholesterol is a putative/suggested risk factor for visually consequential AMD. However, the results of various studies investigating a possible link between hypercholesterolaemia and AMD are not conclusive.
Hypertension: Hypertension (i.e. high blood pressure) is a putative/suggested risk factor for visually consequential AMD. However, the results of studies to date remain inconclusive.